As a result, there is probably no area of management that causes more difficulties, more friction, arid more loss of time and effectiveness. The system like line organisation also owes its birth to army. The distinguishing characteristic between simple line organizations and line-and-staff organizations is the multiple layers of management within line-and-staff organizations. After completing my post graduation I thought to start a website where I can share management related concepts with rest of the people. There are other poetic forms involving three quatrains as well. This results in the confusion between the two.
New and economical means of production are developed with the help of research and experimentation. He discharges his responsibilities in an efficient manner. Management theorists advise that functional authority for staff positions should be extremely limited in scope: it should cover only a tiny aspect of the line managers' job, it should relate only to areas in which line managers have no expertise, and it should be granted only where company-wide uniformity is required. The following sections refer primarily to line-and-staff structures, although the advantages and disadvantages discussed apply to both types of organizational structures. The line executive can concentrate on the execution of plans and they get relieved of dividing their attention to many areas. An example of a staff manager is a legal adviser.
In simple words, it is more adaptive to the changed circumstances. Therefore, staff authority gives staff personnel the right to offer advice in an effort to improve line operations. This makes staff managers feel that line do not need staff. Line and Staff Organisation : The line and staff organisation is an improvement over the above mentioned two viz, line organisation and functional organisation. D Shop disciplinarian: He is responsible for maintaining proper discipline in the organisation. It otherwise called organic or ratio organisation. Line structures by nature are fairly informal and involve few departments, making the organizations highly decentralized.
Disunity in command Unity of command is unavoidable for the management of any organization to reach its goal. It leads to the introduction of a new line of a authority. The Pyramid structure, the Circle structure, and the Ad Hoc structure. It clearly identifies authority, responsibility and accountability at each level. An example of a line manager is a marketing executive. Similarly, staff managers should also help the line to understand how they can improve their activities. This structure is similar to the Pyramid structure in the flow of information except that the there are multiple sources, not just the Chief of Staff.
In the case of the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract there is an additional lining that forms a lining consisting of mucous membranes, and even cilia and goblet cells. This is the reason for calling this organization as scalar organization which means scalar chain of command is a part and parcel of this type of administrative organization. Therefore, the degree of effective co-ordination is less. A disadvantage of a line-and-staff organization is conflict between line and staff personnel. Completed staff work: Completed staff work denotes careful study of the problem, identifying possible alternatives for the problem, and providing recommendations based on the compiled facts.
Also, there is no provision for specialists and specialization that is essential for growth and optimization and hence for growing companies, pure line type of structure becomes ineffective. The free form organisation resembles the project and matrix organisation. Line Structure: The line structure is defined by its clear chain of command, with final approval on decisions affecting the operations of the company still coming from the top down. He currently heads recruitment sourcing at a major movie studio. While doing this they should have to spend less time solving the crimes that have been committed.
When it comes to the quantum of authority, it is highest at the foremost level, which tends to decrease at each following level. The planning and investigation which is related to different matters can be done by the staff specialist and line officers can concentrate on execution of plans. According to Soltonstoff, a staff member may serve as a coach, diagnostician, policy planner, coordinator, trainer, strategist, and so on. These relationships in the hierarchy connect the position and tasks of each level with those above and below it. Staff experts in specific areas are incorporated into the formal chain of command.
The staff consists of two types: General Staff: This group has a general background that is usually similar to executives and serves as assistants to top management. Advancement of research: As the work under this type of organisation is carried out by experts, they constantly undertake the research and experimentation for the improvement of the product. Therefore, line positions, whether they are personnel or managers, engage in activities that are functionally and directly related to the principal workflow of an organization. With clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility, each group may better understand their role in the organization. So there is one way communication. Thus, the customers are the key to the way the activities are grouped. The distinguishing characteristic between simple line organizations and line-and-staff organizations is the multiple layers of management within line-and-staff organizations.
This creates an ideal situation for shifting blame for mistakes. The functional managers are concerned with the operational aspects of the project. Line Officers resent the activities of staff members on the plea that they do not always give correct advice. The complaints and suggestions of lower authority are not communicated back to the top authority. Educational administration: concepts and practices 5th ed. A May 2011 article in the University of Texas at Austin business newsletter indicated that line employees receive higher pay and incentives because they take greater risks.