Hayward also collected Eliot's pre-Prufrock verse, commercially published after Eliot's death as Poems Written in Early Youth. The modernist writer occupied a world that was often perceived as fragmented, where the old bourgeois ideologies of rationality, science, progress, civilization, and imperialism had been somewhat discredited; where the artist was alienated from the social and political world, and where art and literature were marginalized; where populations had been subjected to processes of mass standardization; where philosophy could no longer offer visions of unity, and where language itself was perceived to be an inadequate instrument for expression and understanding. His followers have as a rule taken for granted that words have definite meanings, overlooking the tendency of words to become indefinite emotions. Besides being a poet, playwright and publisher, T. Coleridges metaphysical interest was quite genuine, and was, like most metaphysical interest, an affair of his emotions. The narrowness of the aim makes easier the detection of the merit or feebleness of the work; even of these writers there are very fewso that their criticism is of great importance within its limits. The result, fueled by intermittent rediscovery of Eliot's occasional anti-Semitic rhetoric, has been a progressive downward revision of his once towering reputation.
Only Marxists would argue hotly against Eliot in favor of a classless society, but Eliot should have been able to appreciate a society in which social mobility was possible, if not easy, and in which the best members of society could rise to positions of leadership. The aspects of culture, which included religion, politics, science, and art, gradually became distinct from one another; the witch doctor and the king came to have different roles. Some writers are essentially of the type that reacts in excess of the stimulus, making something new out of the impressions, but suffer from a defect of vitality or an obscure obstruction which prevents nature from taking its course. There are, for instance, many scattered lines and tercets in the Divine Comedy which are capable of transporting even a quite uninitiated reader, just sufficiently acquainted with the roots of the language to decipher the meaning, to an impression of overpowering beauty. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the , which is incommunicable to those people who have not. Carnes eds , American National Biography.
Hence, over the last fifty years or so, we have come to appreciate more fully the complexity and heterogeneity of literary modernism, in its nature and genesis. Eliot: Poet and Critic as Historical Theorist By Scott Weidner Most people suppose that some people, because they enjoy the luxury of Christian sentiments and the excitement of Christian ritual, swallow or pretend to swallow incredible dogma. Eliot, in Life and Letters, June 1929. Eliot's Dark Angel: Intersections of Life and Art 1999. The sentence so frequently quoted in this essay will serve for an example of this process as well as any, and may be profitably contrasted with the opening phrases of the Posterior Analytics. No one who had not witnessed the event could imagine the conviction in the tone of Professor Eucken as he pounded the table and exclaimed Was ist Geist? Such a link with primitive people importantly antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard.
Symons, but from that of Aristotle. Symons impressions are true or false. The poem is often read as a representation of the disillusionment of the post-war generation. His vital contribution is the reaction against romanticism and humanism which brought a classical revival in art and criticism. The wholeness is there, from the very beginning. Significantly, Eliot put forward his proposal for a Christian society shortly after his England, his chosen homeland, abandoning principle in Eliot's eyes, knuckled under to Adolf Hitler in the crisis of September 1938.
Since Arnolds attempt to correct his countrymen, English criticism has followed two directions. The vast accumulations of knowledgeor at least of informationdeposited by the nineteenth century have been responsible for an equally vast ignorance. After we have read Verlaine and Laforgue and Rimbaud and return to Mr. It would be rash to speculate, and is perhaps impossible to determine, what is unfulfilled in Mr. From 1938 to 1957 Eliot's public companion was of London University, who wanted to marry him and left a detailed memoir.
Eliot, covers his poetry and drama, themes, reception, includes samples of Eliot's poems, audio files of him reading them, and additional lectures. In 1954, the composer set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra in a work titled Practical Cats. For some the process is exactly opposite. Geist ist If verbalism were confined to professional philosophers, no harm would be done. He was indisputably a genius.
He attended lectures by and read poetry with. Imbalance-whether in the form of exaggerated regional conflict, which endangered the culture, or cultural uniformity, which threatened other cultures as the central culture sought new satellites-had to be vigorously avoided. When we understand necessity, as Spinoza knew, we are free because we assent. There remains to define this process of depersonalization and its relation to the sense of tradition. Alfred Prufrock is an examination of human insecurity and folly, embodied in the title's J. At Faber and Faber, he was responsible for publishing important English poets like , , and.
Eliot felt that language was one of the prime detern-dners and vehicles of expression of a cultural world view; language defined a civilization's perspective. Personal identity was very important to Eliot's personal concept and to his philosophy, and most of that identity came from the culture in which one had been raised and had learned to think. The ordinary intelligence is good only for certain classes of objects; a brilliant man of science, if he is interested in poetry at all, may conceive grotesque judgments: like one poet because he reminds him of himself, or another because he expresses emotions which he admires; he may use art, in fact, as the outlet for the egotism which is suppressed in his own speciality. He is enduring a personal Hell or labyrinth. Introductory, close reading, and thematic articles by recognized experts in their subjects, and links to manuscript drafts in British Library's archive.
Honours and awards Below are a partial list of honours and awards received by Eliot or bestowed or created in his honour. They were married at Hampstead Register Office on 26 June 1915. In accordance with his wishes, his ashes were taken to , the village in Somerset from which his Eliot ancestors had emigrated to America. Although the character Prufrock seems to be middle-aged, Eliot wrote most of the poem when he was only twenty-two. For there is no other intelligence than this, and so far as artists and men of letters are intelligent we may doubt whether the level of intelligence among men of letters is as high as among men of science their intelligence is of this kind. S, Eliot's Moral Imagination in the Twentieth Century Introduction by Benjamin G. A connection through Aiken resulted in an arranged meeting and on 22 September 1914, Eliot paid a visit to Pound's flat.
Eliot also looked for this dynamic in geographic regions within culture and in the religion of the culture. Despite this rivalry, no aspect of culture -- urbanity and civility, learning, philosophy, the arts, and so on -- could flourish independently of the others. The credit for the renewal of interest in the Jacobean dramatists goes to Eliot. Rational assent may arrive late, intellectual conviction may come slowly, but they come inevitably without violence to honesty and nature. And emotional peoplesuch as stockbrokers, politicians, men of scienceand a few people who pride themselves on being unemotionaldetest or applaud great writers such as Spinoza or Stendhal because of their frigidity. Eliot, Routledge and Kegan Paul 1960. Knopf Publishing Group, 2001, p.