General mechanism for a basic catalyst major pathway pictured Figure 3. Variables: Independent and controlled variables: The amount of sulfuric acid used for catalysis and the amount of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. This product will be impure because of unreacted salicylic acid and visible spectroscopy can help determine the percentage of the impurity of the product. Afterward, the aspirin was analyzed by using chromatography which confirmed the purity of the aspirin. Also, the melting point range will seem broader than it really is. Since aspirin is an ester, it should not be recrytallized from hot water since esters hydrolyses in hot water. Having these results, the recrystallized sample was then identified or assumed as acetylsalicylic acid.
Thus, two drops of 85% Phosphoric acid were added to drive the reaction. The unreacted salicylic acid most probably explains the disparity between the two values. Observed that crystals were clear and spiky 10. Percent yield problems allow us to calculate what percent of the expected product we are able to account for by the end of our experiment. Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. The aspirin will be prepared by reacting a weighed sample of salicylic acid with a weighed sample of acetic anhydride. In the first part of the experiment, heating of the mixture was done and a clear yellow liquid was obtained Table 2.
Add about 10 mL of ice-cold deionized water to the flask and cool in an ice bath until crystallization appears to be complete. Based on the data collected, there was a total yield of 1. Acetic anhydride gave a positive result to water solubility test to form acetic acid. Aspirin Recrystallization The crude product of acetylsalicylic acid crystals were placed in a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask and diethyl ether, heated on a steam bath, was added drop-wise, while swirling, until all crystals had dissolved. Crystals appeared shiny, clear, and needle-like 11. Either concentrated sulfuric or phosphoric acid may be used.
Heat the mixture for 5 minutes. Therefore, the actual yield of the product must be calculated using the percentage of starting salicylic that eventually became aspirin. The water bath temperature should not exceed 50 degrees Celsius. It's strongly recommended that you wash all clothing worn in this lab in a single load without detergent prior to laundering them normally to preserve clothing. General Mechanism for an acidic catalyst The personal times measured for the rise in temperature are relatively accurate in relation to the class average results, as the recorded times fall within one standard deviation of the mean. Weigh the weigh boat with sample inside and record the mass of the crude product formed.
All objectives were performed successfully. Aspirin became commercially available in 1899 and today it is estimated that over a trillion aspirin tablets have been consumed by those in need of its curative effects. This mechanism allows for the formation of Salicylic Acid. Empty the solution from the filter flask and draw air over the crystals. Analgesics are a group of pain relieving drugs designed to eliminate pain and inflammation by acting on the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Fill 3 test tubes with 4 mL of distilled water and place them in a test tube rack. Then, a vacuum filtration apparatus was set up. Allow the sample to vacuum dry for 5 minutes. Some test tubes developed into a gummy polymer of salicylic acid, likely because they were heated for too long. Taking this into account, the actual mass of the crude aspirin product is reduced to 2.
The goal of this experiment was to synthesize aspirin. Once the melting point has been determined turn off the apparatus so it may cool and dispose of your capillary tube in the appropriate waste bin. Ethanol was used to dissolve aspirin along with the impurities such as salicylic acid and others. Set up a 150 mL beaker with water to warm up on a hot plate medium heat 2. Record the temperature range that the sample melts within. This, however, has side goals that go along with the main one.
The absorbance should be made within 5 minutes of the time the sample was dissolved in ethanol 9. Hypothesis: The catalyst, glacial acetic acid, will be the most efficient in yielding the purest aspirin because of its chemical properties of C2H4O2. Calculate the percent yield of the product formed. The information we gather will allow us to determine the percent yield of the crude aspirin product and of the purified aspirin product. Heating was employed so that salicylic acid would melt and react with acetic anhydride. There is an association of using aspirin to treat colds, chicken pox, etc. Also, when transferring the crude aspirin into the vacuum filtration, some of the crystals stayed in the flask.