For example, industrialism has destroyed the domestic system of production. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values: Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. Theory of Deterioration: Some thinkers have identified social change with deterioration. New civilizations and societies come up by replacing old societies and thereby retaining some of its elements in its change. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.
It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. According to this theory there are certain forces, social or natural or both, which bring about social change. The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. He gives a simple explanation of social change and ignores the complexities of habituation on the one hand and of revulsion on the other. Modern industrial capitalism promotes the constant revision of the technology of production, a process into which science is increasingly drawn. Affordable jet transportation, cell phones, the Internet, and other modern technology have taken such communication a gigantic step further.
Revolutionary movements seek to fundamentally restructure society. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Though Weber too appreciated the importance of economic factors, but he did not ascribe to them the importance that they have in Marxian theory. The possibilities for planning by government and other large organizations have increased in modern societies. Some thinkers are of the opinion that men have all what they need in material goods and that there is no need for further invention.
Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. Change is caused not only by economic factors but is also largely automatic in nature. Yet because these theories are not scientifically determined, they fail to make an explicit distinction between decline and progress. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society. The changes from homogeneity to heterogeneity is multitudinously exemplified; from the simple tribe, to the civilized nation full of structural and functional unlikeness in all parts.
Marx also advanced the thesis that progress was a law of society. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. In spite of the many technological achievements, big industries and imposing dams the fact remains that in India the evils of unemployment, crime, violence and disease have not lessened. Sometimes, to unify a society, conflicts are created with outsiders who are made to appear as enemies. The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Briefly put Marx held that human society passes through various stages, each with its own well-defined organisational system. Variation in the availability of water resources and mineral resources can also affect social change.
Cyclic Theory: Another ancient notion of social change found side by side with the afore-mentioned one, is that human society goes through certain cycles. The development of factories during the Industrial Revolution meant that work became much more dangerous than before. Industrialization In an industrial society, the primary means of subsistence is industry, which is a system of production based on the mechanized manufacture of goods. Historical background Several ideas of social change have been developed in various and historical periods. Stuart Chapin gave another version of cyclical change. In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government.
Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Generally, a should include elements such as structural aspects of change like population shifts , processes and mechanisms of social change, and directions of change. The technological advance of the same century led many philosophers and sociologists to conclude that the major trends of social phenomena made for social progress. We have borrowed many cultural traits such as use of knife and fork in eating from Western culture. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system e. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. Demographic change is caused by an increase in birth and decline in death and migration of populations.
He postulated a hypothesis of synchronous cyclical change. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Do you believe that this is a positive development or a negative development? Basically, social change comes from two sources. Social life: Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. Some of the more important of these changes include commercialization, increasing division of labour, growth of production, formation of nation-states, bureaucratization, growth of technology and science, secularization, , spread of literacy, increasing geographic and , and growth of organizations.
One source is random or unique factors such as climate, weather, or the presence of specific groups of people. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form. These theories have been criticized for conceiving of civilizations as natural entities with sharp boundaries, thinking that neglects the interrelations between civilizations. Poverty is related with health and the size of the family also. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country.