This paper is based on a study that explored the psychosocial consequences of childlessness in Ranga Reddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India in 1998, and describes the extent and kinds of infertility treatment sought. The distribution of women per 100 men of the population at district level reveals a diverse pattern. Crucial areas of study remain unexplored and innovative methodological approaches are rarely adopted that can help generate the evidence necessary for identifying policy entry points or social action. It starts declining as the country approaches the late stage. The social, economic and political implications of these age groups and the geographical variation in their distribution are worthy of serious consideration.
Multilevel models that control for an array of both individual and contextual factors showed that exposure to a relative surplus of potential mates is associated with a higher likelihood that women will have little or no say in the selection of their husband and an increased probability that women will meet their husband for the first time on their wedding day. The calculated unintended pregnancy rate and ratio in the study population were 235 per 1,000 pregnancies and 570 per 1,000 women, respectively. This article examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality, and gender bias in child survival in India using district-level data from the 1981 census. This paper explores gender inequality within households in the decision of private versus government school choice in India. When the youths out migrate, the population of older adults and aged people starts declining after some time.
It also implies that reductions in a household's fertility may have an ambiguous impact on its per capita consumption, which depends on how the household's composition responds to new births and changes over time: in this sample, an old household's per capita consumption is not affected by the number of births. On the contrary, the European countries, with low fertility rate and long life expectancy, have only 20 per cent of their populations in the younger age group. I was especially intrigued by che unusual chapcer on Tulasi temples in Orissa, and the description of terracotta planter shrines for the tulasi plane, che Indian basil. In 1991 rural population was 74. Marriage among better-educated women is more durable and the difference between less-educated and better-educated women has widened over time. Also, there is a beautiful series of phocographs showing in detailed seeps how pottery is made in each of chese regions.
Substantive findings are reviewed under three broad headings: macrostructure, demographics and the life course, and family process. Age-specific mortality rates show that it is only in the first month that mortality rate among male infants exceeds than among female infants. India is now passing through the second stage of demographic transition. The combined effort of Indian women and international support agencies is suggested as an approach to examining, evaluating, and remediating the problem. Relevant socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh are described. The net deficit of females was 9,9 million in 1951 , which has now widened to 35 million.
This decade's research on divorce is characterized by bigger and better data sets, more sophisticated research techniques, and a growing body of conclusive empirical findings in the areas of demographic and life course factors. As the former head of the Department of Sociology at the University of Delhi he did much to stimulate research, specifically that based on fieldwork. Characteristics that differentiate sibs—age and gender—are found to affect within-family variability. The number of doctors and engineers per million of population are 13 and 16 respectively. واشتملت العينة التي تمت الإفادة من بياناتها على أكثر من 10000 أسرة، منها 6472 أسرة سعودية. The Indian society is highly masculine and continues to remain like that with minor changes in the percentage of females.
The research synthesised in the present chapter shows that public health research in India has yet to integrate gender as central to the analysis of health inequities. A major aim is to see whether the various dimensions of patriarchy are separable and distinct in their relationship to regional variations in fertility levels. On the other hand, the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Haryana have also shown positive signs of overall improvement in their sex ratio. Finally, we examine whether there are any effects of the sex composition of children on the propensity of Swedish mothers to enter the married state. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. Differential enumeration of males and females has been an important feature of census counts in the country. One of the important aspects of the population study is the age composition.
Indians are born into a caste, and those belonging to a lower echelon often face discrimination and hardship. A north-south comparison illustrates that southern women have relatively higher levels of literacy and labour force participation, lower levels of son preference, and smaller family size. Hazards regression analyses are employed in the analysis. To shed light on the puzzle in the data, we present a non-cooperative theoretical framework based in economic theories of domestic violence, whereby differing parental son preference and bargaining over investments in girl and boy children potentially explains the observed relationship. The interaction between brood sex composition and chick performance in the herring gull Larus argentatus was examined under different environmental conditions.
Multivariate analysis revealed that rural women had slightly higher fertility than urban women. A favourable sex ratio to females in the hilly parts of Uttaranchal can also be attributed to male-selective out-migration from the region to the plains in search of better employment opportunities. Sex composition is expressed with the help of a ratio known as sex ratio. This hypothesis states that, relative to people who marry later in life, persons who marry at comparatively young ages will be especially susceptible to divorce when confronted with abundant alternatives to their current spouse. Couples with 2 daughters tended to have a larger family size than all other combinations. However, the question of whether these factors are related has not been adequately studied.
Again, in 1951, sex ratio further declined to 946. Recent gender change has weakened the connection between a child's sex and the father's involvement with children providing an explanation for the attenuated effect in more recent periods. Thus for recent period there is some primary evidence that sex ratio at birth in the country as a whole is possibly lower than generally accepted range of 943-952 but it needs to be corroborated by some more data. The results further indicate that parity progression ratio measures inherently underestimate the effect of sex preferences on individual fertility because they incorrectly assume that sex preferences a are homogeneous within the population and b can only act to increase, not to decrease, fertility. More efforts have to be done to narrow down the gap of sex disparity. It is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females at a given point of time.
High prevalence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions was observed, particularly for traditional contraceptive users. This article is protected by copyright. This increase by six points has brought some relief to the scholars. However, in , it is fairly low; in other countries the average inhabitant is about 20 years older. Generally, there are three major cultural and religious reasons that are broadly discussed by researchers for the preference for sons over daughters in India, namely, aspects of inheritance, old-age support and rituals Croll, 2000;Das Gupta, 1987;Larsen, 2011;Miller, 1981. A methodological sample of University of Michigan students is used to test and illustrate various aspects of the model in some detail. Data from a survey undertaken during 1979-80 by the Population Research Center in Baroda India were used to assess the probable impact of child sex preference on fertility.