The Permanent Settlement guaranteed stability of income. They were expected to improve the conditions of the tenants but the company would not interfere in their internal dealings with the tenants so long they paid the fixed land revenue. Zamindars too knew their area of zamindari and how much amount they had to collect from the peasants. He knew the amount of the revenue to be paid to the landlord. Permanent Settlement, The was a grand contract signed in 1793 between the government of the East India Company in Bengal and individual landholders of Bengal- zamindars and talukdars.
And when, the income of the landlord increased, his luxury and extravagance also increased. This provision of the permanent settlement made many zamindars paupers because their estates were consisted of mostly taluks. This made sure that Zamindars were strict enough to collect revenues from peasants and pay it to company at fixed time. They were given permanent hereditary rights to collect revenue. It was hardly a wise policy measure to bind posterity for all times.
Cornwallis thought of such a system in India. First Published: October 10, 2015 Last Updated:October 10, 2015 Permanent settlement was introduced in 1793 by Lord Cornwallis and covered around one fifth of British territory in India, including Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, parts of Northern Karnataka, Varanasi and some other areas. Therefore, in those days they served the people better. The company knew the amount it would get in revenue. Since, the tax burden on land was fixed, investment in land became an attraction for zamindars and landlords. So far, a large number of employees were involved in the revenue administration of the company but the implementation of the permanent settlement enabled them to devote their services to the other department of the company as there was no work in this department now.
They remained just the tax collectors of the land. But in India, it did not happen, why? They should collect land revenue from the people and deposit it at the government treasury regularly for all times. Under the operation of the Sun-set Law greater part of the zamindari lands of Bengal were sold through auction sales and their lands were transferred to new hands. It was at this stage that the idea first emerged of fixing the land revenue at a permanent amount. The West Bengal Acquisition of Estates Act, 1955, has abolished Zamindars by paying compensation to the Zamindars at a huge expense to the public exchequer.
Failure to pay led to the sale of land to the highest bidder. Although the government could not increase the revenue in future yet the flourishing trade enabled the English to impose some fresh taxes on the traders and thus they earned a lot of wealth through new tax levied on these landlords. Cornwallis was the first Governor General who paid his attention to the revenue reforms and attained a great success and tremendous fame. Warren Hastings tried his best to bring a better system. The mahalwari system of land revenue was introduced by and.
Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. Merits and Demerits of the Permanent Settlement: Scholars hold different opinions about the merits and demerits of the Permanent Settlement. Moreover, the Permanent Settlement enabled the Company to maximise its income as land revenue was now fixed higher than it had ever been in the past. Furthermore, the zamindars were unhappy because all taluks who hitherto paid government revenue through zamindars were separated from their control and made independent landholders. They received the annuity from the perpetual tenureholders by virtue of their right in land, not by any claim to capital investment in it. This class did not support the people during the war of independence. The landlords became indolent and led luxurious lives due to their richness.
Even when new areas of land were brought under cultivation and the rents of the land already under cultivation had been increased manifold, the state could not claim its legitimate share in the increase. This created widespread discontent among the. . If the productive capacity of the land increased, the revenue did not increase proportionately. The , what came to be known as , frightened the zamindars most.
Politically, the permanent settlement did fit in the game of the company and the Zamindars along with other vested interests became the favourite children of Imperialism. One effect of the electoral politics under the constitution of 1919 was the need for mass contact for success in polls. Moreover, the income of the government was fixed once for all, which enabled it to make its planning according to its resources of income. They transferred the zamindari management and control to a permanent intermediate class in exchange for an annuity. The Faraizis a Muslim reformist sect took up the peasants' cause and the established extensive network across the country, particularly in south Bengal, against the zamindari control. Zamindars were given the rights to collect the rent from the peasants. But cash crops need more inputs in terms of seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation, hence farmer had to borrow more.
The ryots became tenants since they were considered the tillers of the soil. Land Reforms in India: Constitutional and Legal Approach. Fourthly, all kinds of details regarding the lands, the papers of the countless riots, the questions of their rights, etc. It was concluded in 1793 by the headed by , also known as Lord Cornwallis. By the Permanent Settlement Act of 1793, their power of keeping the armed forces were taken back.