Pontus and the Outside World. To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas, and that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace. Praise of the Dead 3. It is told that when his political opponent, Thucydides, was asked by Sparta's king, Archidamus, whether he or Pericles was the better fighter, Thucydides answered without any hesitation that Pericles was better, because even when he was defeated, he managed to convince the audience that he had won. According to , Pericles would always prepare assiduously for his orations and, before going on the rostrum, he would always pray to the Gods, so as not to utter any improper word. Athenian statesmen were extremely well educated in all fields, no matter what position they held in the city, meaning that though he was serving in the military as a general, Pericles was well versed and educated in politics, societal matters, arts, drama, and culture.
The people of Athens gathered in the city. The the Athenian Assembly adopted Ephialtes' proposal without opposition. Pericles was a famous Greek general. A History of the Greek City States, 700—338 B. As was customary at the end of each summer, the governor of Athens gave a public funeral oration to honor those who had died in battle. We can be reasonably sure that delivered a speech at the end of the first year of the war, but there is no consensus as to what degree Thucydides' record resembles Pericles' actual speech.
Comfort, therefore, not condolence, is what I have to offer to the parents of the dead who may be here. I will speak first of our ancestors, for it is right and seemly that now, when we are lamenting the dead, a tribute should be paid to their memory. If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. He also conquered the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli and established an Athenian colony in the area. So died these men as became Athenians. How the Athenians and Spartans fought the Peloponnesian War translated in Greek by Angelos Philippatos.
During their time together they had two sons named Paralus and Xanthippus, both of whom died of the plague shortly before Pericles did. Pericles determines to enter the contest. Finally, Pericles proposed to reimburse the city for all questionable expenses from his private property, with the proviso that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name. Some may say that Bush or Obama wisely used crisis to their favor. Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business.
Athens would eventually lose the war and would never reach the same heights again. But instead of listening to him I would have you day by day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with the love of her; and when you are impressed by the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if ever they failed in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which they could present at her feast. Angelos Vlachos, a Greek , points out the utilization of the alliance's treasury, initiated and executed by Pericles, as one of the largest embezzlements in human history; this misappropriation financed, however, some of the most marvellous artistic creations of the ancient world. By not dwelling on the enemy, Pericles manages to keep his audience fixed firmly in the moment, both of the funeral itself and the rhetorical moment he has created. For it is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have nothing to hope for: it is rather they to whom continued life may bring reverses as yet unknown, and to whom a fall, if it came, would be most tremendous in its consequences. Although Pericles was a main source of his inspiration, some historians have noted that the passionate and idealistic literary style of the speeches Thucydides attributes to Pericles is completely at odds with Thucydides' own cold and analytical writing style.
He first proposed a decree that permitted the poor to watch theatrical plays without paying, with the state covering the cost of their admission. Regardless, his next point is just that: Athens is a great and noble city which serves as a template or inspiration for all others as the first true democracy. He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles' reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. It is clear that Pericles views democracy as the best form of government and having adopted it, he views Athens as superior to their fellow city states. A leader in a time of crisis would have much to learn from this rhetorical approach.
The funeral oration can be seen in the world today with the war in Iraq, where the President gives the speeches. The freedom we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. It is likely the Pericles would have been thoughtful of Athenian moral at this time. This is what a memorial speech is meant to be: The fallen soldiers chose to die as heroes, and should be honored for it. Pericles was reelected to the post of general during has rain. Instead Pericles offers them comfort in the fact that their lives were not lost in vain as were so many heart attack victims, drunkards, accidental fall victims, and executed criminals.
Plutarch says that Pericles stood first among the Athenians for forty years. According to the Public Broadcasting Service, the idea that Athenian citizens could be rulers but also rule themselves at the same time was a new idea, and it quickly became the ideal of the Greek world. Although Aspasia was acquitted thanks to a rare emotional outburst of Pericles, his friend, Phidias, died in prison and another friend of his, Anaxagoras, was attacked by the for his religious beliefs. Antiochus has kept suitors from marrying her by requiring that they answer a riddle correctly or die. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential family. With so many sons, brothers, fathers, and loved ones having perished, and after only one year of what Pericles knew would be a long straggle for Athens against the Spartan alliance, he knew that he would have to raise the spirits of the people and persuade them to continue the struggle by reviewing for them what they have and what they might lose.
Critics of Pericles' strategy, however, have been just as numerous as its supporters. Yet you who are still of an age to beget children must bear up in the hope of having others in their stead; not only will they help you to forget those whom you have lost, but will be to the state at once a reinforcement and a security; for never can a fair or just policy be expected of the citizen who does not, like his fellows, bring to the decision the interests and apprehensions of a father. His speech rallied support for the war. And they are surely to be esteemed the bravest spirits who, having the clearest sense both of the pains and pleasures of life, do not on that account shrink from danger. He led several successful military campaigns. When he wakes, he promises Marina to Lysimachus, and they set off for Ephesus. He then goes into describing their democracy and why it is the best for all to follow.