In , the man is placing his finger in the hole, controlling the threat of water leaks until he finds a more permanent solution to the problem. Threats can be malicious or not. An example of a modification attack could be sending information that was meant to go to one party but directing it to another. A weakness that has already been exploited by a hacker d. Back door Attacks - This can have two different meanings, the original term back door referred to troubleshooting and developer hooks into systems. In the same way, we analyze a system from a security perspective, thinking about ways in which the system's security can malfunction and diminish the value of its assets. Although the circumstances of failure were rare, Intel decided to manufacture and replace the chips.
This occurs over a long period. Often difficult to perform, but very powerful. The public telephone directory b. Could the business still function? We take a closer look at denial of service in Chapter 7. Fortunately, most anti-virus software will recognize these attacks. These attacks are initially carried out to gain passwords for an access or modification attack. Finally, it is difficult to determine motive for an attack.
The water to the left of the wall is a threat to the man on the right of the wall: The water could rise, overflowing onto the man, or it could stay beneath the height of the wall, causing the wall to collapse. We do not want to split hairs about whether such an attack is directed—at that one software product—or random, against any user of that product; the point is not semantic perfection but protecting against the attacks. During the development of a complicated operating system or application, programmers add back doors or maintenance hooks. Indeed, the security community is just beginning to understand what availability implies and how to ensure it. For example, someone might access your email server and inflammatory information to others under the guise of one of your top managers.
Menurut Garfinkel dan Spafford, suatu komputer dapat dikatakan aman jika bisa diandalkan dan perangkat lunaknya bekerja sesuai dengan yang diharapkan oleh pengguna. Different kinds of threats are shown in. The public telephone directory b. How do the first three concepts relate to the last four? As computer security experts we need to anticipate what bad things might happen, instead of waiting for the attack to happen or debating whether the attack is intentional or accidental. For instance, in October 2004, U. A vulnerability is a weakness in the security system, for example, in procedures, design, or implementation, that might be exploited to cause loss or harm.
Here, a wall is holding water back. Integrity can be enforced in much the same way as can confidentiality: by rigorous control of who or what can access which resources in what ways. The last thing a person on an intercept mission wants is to be discovered. Assume that the victim system readily decrypts arbitrary ciphertexts that the attacker can choose, except for ciphertext c itself. This involves placing a piece of software between a server and the user that neither the server administrators nor the user are aware of. This signal triggers these systems which launch an attack simultaneously on the target network or system.
Repudiation Attacks - This makes data or information to appear to be invalid or misleading Which can even be worse. If a thief steals your computer, you no longer have access, so you have lost availability; furthermore, if the thief looks at the pictures or documents you have stored, your confidentiality is compromised. Chapter 12: 13: With a public key encryption, suppose A wants to send a message to B. A paradigm of computer security is access control: To implement a policy, computer security controls all accesses by all subjects to all protected objects in all modes of access. An attacker may try to bring down an e-commerce website to prevent or deny usage by legitimate customers. You are the security manager for a large law firm that handles many high-profile cases, both civil and criminal.
Chapter 12: 13: With a public key encryption, suppose A wants to send a message to B. His research interests include electronic commerce, electronic data interchange, information systems control and audit. Spoofing Attacks - This is an attempt by someone or something to masquerade as someone else. Neither do we want the data to be modified in illegitimate ways. Computer security is an integral element of sound management.
If someone on television sneezes, you do not worry about the possibility of catching a cold. I must admit I was quite shocked to hear about the latest attacks. You do not have enough resources to defend against every possible type of attack, meaning that you must prioritize your defenses. This is an example of what type of attack? Unfortunately, we have seen this type of attack frequently, as denial-of-service attacks flood servers with more messages than they can handle. Universities are havens for free exchange of ideas.