He was a Moroccan traveller, geographer, botanist and man of the law. For example, a Timbuktu qadi made an important ruling on slaves captured in war. During his travels, he covered around 75,000 miles of ground which included much of the Islamic Empire and beyond. Embarking on a boat in , he sailed with a retinue of followers down both shores of the Red Sea to , crossed it by land, and set sail again from. In recent years, Ibn Battuta has become more widely known in Western countries owing to publication of popular articles about him and to his inclusion in most encyclopedias and world history textbooks. During the life of Ibn Battuta sometimes spelled Battutah , Islamic civilization stretched from the Atlantic coast of West Africa across northern Africa, the Middle East, and India to Southeast Asia.
Modern critics have noted several textual discrepancies which hint at substantial borrowing from older tales. London: John Murray, 2001 Reprint New York: Welcome Rain Publishers, 2002. Their uppermost virtue is religion and righteousness and they are Shafi'i in rite. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim Traveler of the Fourteenth Century. However on arriving in Gibraltar, he discovered that the threat had receded as the Black Death had already killed the theaters.
This holy man saw that Ibn Battuta had a passion for travel. His group crossed at the 13,000-foot 4,000-meter Khawak Pass. They cannot be considered human beings. Born in Tangier, Morocco, in the time of the Marinid dynasty, Ibn Battuta grew up in a family known for careers in legal scholarship. So the reason that I am bringing all this up is because I really want to know, if anyone else was as shocked as I was to find out this information? McDonald, Lucile, The Arab Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta.
Along his journey, he recorded copious observations, notes, insights, and lessons. After all, he was just a traveler with little formal education. Its gold financed a strong army of bowmen and an armored cavalry. She was an Arab and spoke to me in Arabic. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. How fortunate we are to have accounts from two contrasting intercontinental travelers from more than 600 years ago.
Those borrowed parts include descriptions of Alexandria, Cairo, Medina, and Mecca. The sultan also made him a qadi, a Muslim judge. Ibn Battuta 1304—1368 was a scholar, theologian, adventurer, and traveler who, like Marco Polo fifty years earlier, wandered the world and wrote about it. Ibn Baṭṭūṭah spent the years between 1327 and 1330 in Mecca and leading the quiet life of a devotee, but such a long stay did not suit his temperament. He also married and divorced several times, bought and sold slaves, fathered children, and sat in audience with Mongol monarchs. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. The sons of wealthy Timbuktu merchant families studied under them to become Islamic scholars, too.
Ibn Battuta and Ibn Juzayy acknowledge Ibn Jubayr in the descriptions of Aleppo and Damascus. He first went up into Iraq and Persia visiting parts of the and cities such as Baghdad, Tabriz, and Mosul. The narrative of his travels is a unique account on Islamic and medieval history that was placed by the historians within the rich, trans-hemispheric cultural setting of the history of the medieval world. While he did not discover new or unknown lands, and his contribution to scientific geography was minimal, the documentary value of his work has given it lasting historical and geographical significance. But the sultan called him back. He then traveled along the east coast of Africa spending time in Somalia and Tanzania.
After Ibn Battuta studied for a while in Mecca, he left in 1328 to make his way down the Red Sea. Throughout his life as evidenced in his tales he maintained conceptual biases as the cultural and political elites dominated in the story involving very little masses despite that fact that he had a significant attention to the social history of ordinary Muslims. He traveled across north Africa, usually joining a caravan for company and the safety of numbers. Since the zone was constantly involved with urbanizing people, and joining the sedentary of China, greater India, Middle East and Mediterranean rim, it was easy for Ibn Battuta to travel effectively from Spain to China. The merit of Gibb's version is that it gives a very useful and lengthy introduction on Ibn Battuta's life, relating for instance to his adoption of an ascetic life, resigning all his offices and giving away all his possessions at some stage, before he was urged into accepting office again by Sultan Muhammad of India and became his envoy at the head of an important mission to the most powerful Emperor of China. Five manuscripts were found by the French when they conquered Algeria in 1830.
After eight years, Ibn Battuta was eager to escape the political intrigue. He claims to have gone as far north as Beijing, but his description of that is even vaguer than the rest, so perhaps he only got as far north as Zaitun, now Quanzhou. In total, he traveled an astonishing 75,000 miles, much more than Marco Polo. In the Arab world, as in Europe, there was also a necessity to justify the enslavement of black Africans by portraying them as subhuman. They wrap themselves in silk mantles, and in their country there is a gold mine. This enabled Ibn Battuta to travel to China and Spain because the sacred law was common in the two countries. For me as for them, it was cause of insufferable illness.