These plans were subsequently frustrated because their Ottoman allies were reluctant to support Arab nationalism, fearing that the ideology would spread to their own empire as well. The message assured Hussein that The are determined that the Arab race shall be given full opportunity of once again forming a nation in the world. The boundaries and governance of the proposed Arab state were at best vaguely described by McMahon, and the land west of the Jordan were excluded from the offer. Seventhly — Our representative, bearer of the present letter, has been definitely instructed to ensure the arrival of this, and I think that his mission this time is finished since the condition of things is known both in general and in detail, and there is no need for sending anyone else. With regard to the questions of limits and boundaries, it would appear to be premature to consume our time in discussing such details in the heat of war, and while, in many portions of them, the Turk is up to now in effective occupation; especially as we have learned, with surprise and regret, that some of the Arabs in those very parts, far from assisting us, are neglecting this their supreme opportunity and are lending their arms to the German and the Turk, to the new despoiler and the old oppressor. The Government of Great Britain, as I have already informed you, are ready to give all guarantees of assistance and support within their power to the Arab Kingdom, but their interests demand, as you yourself have recognised, a friendly and stable administration in the vilayet of Bagdad, and the adequate safeguarding of these interests calls for a much fuller and more detailed consideration than the present situation and the urgency of these negotiations permit. There were no alternative scenarios.
Yet within these limits they have not included places inhabited by a foreign race. However, the British are at fault because of their lack of communication, broken promises, and prior commitments. Someone had to take power from the Ottomans. Support among the elites of Great Britain and France because of the Biblical significance of Palestine aided the cause of Zionism as well. The real interests of the followers of our religion necessitate this. McMahon, however, insisted that certain areas falling within the French sphere of influence, such as the districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and land lying west of , , and ; i. After perusal of the letter, the money should be given to him on condition that no discussion whatever is to be made with him of any question concerning us.
And the conditioning system, in which both sides have been trapped for almost a hundred years, was manifestly a piece of British handiwork. The Jews were political mobilized, financially secured, and shared similar cultural and social constructions as the British, which was not the case for the Arabs. The British Government, in authorising the letters despatched to King Hussein before the outbreak of the revolt by Sir Henry McMahon, would seem to raise a doubt as to whether our pledges to King Hussein as head of the Arab nation are consistent with French intentions to make not only Syria but Upper Mesopotamia another Tunis. McMahon said the clause had been suggested by a man named al Faroqi, a member of the Abd party, to satisfy the demands of the Syrian Nationalists for the independence of Arabia. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done.
The shift in British policy most likely was influenced by Jewish leaders, but I do not think it was strictly Zionist ideas that led to an overall change in policy. This is the beginning of the principal movement, and we are satisfied in its beginning with what he had levied as guards to keep the interior of the country quiet; they are of the people of Hejaz only, for many reasons, which it would take too long to set forth; chiefly the difficulties in the way of providing their necessities with secrecy and speed although this precaution was not necessary and to make it easy to bring reinforcements when needed; this is the summary of what you wished to understand. We are greatly pleased to hear of the action you are taking to win all the Arabs over to our joint cause, and to dissuade them from giving any assistance to our enemies, and we leave it to your discretion to seize the most favourable moment for further and more decided measures. In July 1915 Ḥusayn took the opportunity to send a letter to McMahon detailing the conditions under which he would consider a partnership with the British. This declaration completely undermined both prior agreements by issuing a decree that was in total contradiction. It is one of the most widely circulated pieces of anti-semitic propaganda that influenced Henry Ford, Hitler, and even the mass media of the Arab and Muslim world. That letter is quoted as conveying the promise to the Sherif of Mecca to recognise and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories proposed by him.
This enabled the under the command of to advance into the Ottoman territories of Palestine and Syria. It connected Damascus with Mecca and Medina, and allowed the Muslim population of the Ottoman Empire to make their pilgrimage more easily. The Zionists hoped to attain support from one of the Great Powers for increased Jewish and eventual sovereignty in Palestine, whereas the Arab nationalists wanted an independent Arab state covering all the Ottoman Arab domains. At the same time we beg you not to embark or send him in a steamer, or officially, the means already arranged being sufficient. It is of the greatest importance that the Asquith-Grey government, responsible for McMahon-Hussein and Sykes-Picot, gave way, in December 1916, to the Lloyd George coalition.
We ask God to prosper your endeavors and to further the work which you have taken in hand. Germany had detailed plans to subvert Russian influence in the Caucasus and Persia, and British influence in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iraq. He called for open Jewish immigration and land acquisition, which enabled thousands of highly committed and well-trained socialist Zionists to enter Palestine between 1919 and 1923. Letter from McMahon to Husayn, December 14, 1915: After customary greetings and acknowledgment of previous letter. We may, therefore, find it necessary to take hostile measures against these posts and garrisons, but we have issued strict instructions that every care must be taken by our ships to differentiate between the hostile Turkish garrisons and the innocent Arab inhabitants, towards whom we entertain such friendly feelings.
The League of Nations might reserve in the mandate a right of supervision of administration and even of revocation of authority, but that right would be nominal and of little, if any, real value provided the mandatory was one of the Great Powers as it undoubtedly would be. In fact, neither was to emerge as the League of Nations had given Palestine to the British to govern as a mandate. The source material below is placed in the public domain and is free of copy restrictions. Had it not been for the determination which I see in the Arabs for the attainment of their objects, I would have preferred to seclude myself on one of the heights of a mountain, but they, the Arabs, have insisted that I should guide the movement to this end. Thus, Husayn and McMahon never came to an agreement regarding this issue. Under the terms of that agreement, the Zionist Organization needed to secure an agreement along the lines of the with the Sharif of Mecca.
British Middle East policy, however, espoused conflicting objectives, and as a result London became involved in three distinct and contradictory negotiations concerning the fate of the region. The Balfour Declaration 1917 , with its ambiguous language, set up conflict in Palestine for years to come. It was as fully my intention to exclude Palestine as it was to exclude the more Northern coastal tracts of Syria. As Sharif, Hussein was responsible for the custody of Islam's shrines in the Hejaz and, consequently, was recognized as one of the Muslims spiritual leaders. Had it been a few decades down the road, Husayn could have taken a lesson from the Zionists and simply attempted to buy up as much land as possible for his prospective independent state. Nuestra diputación aquí en París está plenamente al tanto de las propuestas remitidas ayer por la Organización Sionista a la Conferencia de Paz, y las consideramos moderadas y adecuadas. I do not find it necessary to draw your attention to the fact that our plan is of greater security to the interests and protection of the rights of Great Britain than it is to us, and will necessarily be so whatever may happen, so that Great Britain may finally see her friends in that contentment and advancement which she is endeavouring to establish for them now, especially as her Allies being neighbours to us will be the germ of difficulties and discussion with which there will be no peaceful conditions.