He therefore undertook a massive reconstruction of royal government, overthrowing all changes made after the death of Henry I in 1135. Henry's parents never cared for each other, their's was a union of convenience. Europe was a-buzz with the scandal, Henry's fury subsided into grief. Him he pushed off calling him 'pander', and saying, 'Touch me not, Reginald; you owe me fealty and subjection; you and your accomplices act like madmen. They slaughtered both Becket and the monk, thus creating a martyr. Canterbury became one of the most visited pilgrimage sites in western Christendom. The issue blighted the last 20 years of his life, and poisoned relations within the family.
Becket was sent on a mission to the court of France to negotiate a marriage between Henry and Eleanor's eldest surviving son, known as Young Henry and Margaret, the daughter of the King of France by his second marriage. The council contained an unusually able group of men—some of them were great barons, such as and Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; others included civil servants, such as Nigel, bishop of Ely, , and his son, Richard of Ilchester. He tried to keep his temper under control by working very hard as it distracted him from things that might sparked off his temper. Henry I chose Geoffrey to sire his grandchildren because his lands were strategically placed on the Norman frontiers and he required the support of Geoffrey's father, his erstwhile enemy, Fulk of Anjou. He asked Thomas would it not be charitable for someone to give the man a cloak, Becket agreed that it would. Important legal developments of the reign are lucidly treated in Sir Frederick Pollock and , The History of before the Time of 2 vols. Becket did eventually back down, but their quarrel continued and became more embittered, culminating in Beckett fleeing the country.
Becket replied that he was not prepared to answer those charges and was eventually found guilty of both. He was the son of that ill-matched pair, and , known as the Empress, from her first marriage to the Holy Roman Emperor the daughter of. The king believed that Becket had betrayed him and was determined to obtain revenge. Henry's expansion of royal justice did, however, bring him into conflict with thomas becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, who opposed the king's efforts to punish members of the clergy who had been convicted of crimes in ecclesiastical courts and removed from their clerical status. The king then proposed to have a committee of barons and clerks compile these customs into a written document, which would be presented to the council. The problem for Louis was that he had no son and if Eleanor was to have a boy with Henry, the child would succeed as Duke of Aquitaine and remove any claim from Louis and his daughters. At this point in time, the Church and State of England fought mainly for power over the judicial system of England.
And if they do leave they are to give security, if the lord king please, that they will seek no evil or damage to king or kingdom in going, in making their stay, or in returning. The hearing of the royal court lasted 7 days, and the results were demands that the State threw at Becket. Foliot then returned to , where he was absolved on 5 April and reinstated in his see on 1 May. Rebellion of 1173 By 1173 Henry seemed to have overcome all opposition. Henry begged him to return, and he did so, apparently reconciled, in 1170. Henry refused to accept Becket's offer and insisted that the Archbishop should stand trial. The king then offered gifts to Becket's shrine and spent a vigil at Becket's tomb.
In his cups with his faithful lords, he suggested it might be a good idea for Becket to die. As the legates had no mandate to compel Becket to accept them as judges, the negotiations came to an end with the king and bishops still appealing to the papacy. With a flash of his old spirit, Henry proudly refused the offer. One should note that a chancellor of England in the twelfth century was equivalent in power and prestige to the Prime Minister of today. However, when the legates met with Becket on 18 November, it quickly became apparent that Becket would not accept negotiations with the king nor accept the legates as judges of either case against him. Henry was able to derive one conclusion from their dinner sessions Ð Thomas Becket was the most intelligent man in all of England.
He had fashioned a large empire and made England a powerful nation. Henry flew into a furious rage. For instance, when King Henry separated the church and state by making his power superior to the church's, Becket became his right-hand by becoming the Chancellor of England. In a single day, if necessary, he can run through four or five day-marches and, thus foiling the plots of his enemies, frequently mocks their plots with surprise sudden arrivals. The formidable Matilda's reaction to this event has unfortunately not been recorded. At last the chancellor reluctantly allowed the king to overcome him. While these developments were taking place, Henry was also engaged in consolidating his possessions.
His conduct and aims were always self-centred, but he was neither a tyrant nor an odious egoist. The knights found him at the altar, drew their swords and began hacking at their victim finally splitting his skull. By the multiplication of a class of experts in finance and law Henry did much to establish two great professions, and the location of a permanent court at Westminster and the character of its business settled for England and for much of the English-speaking world that , not , would rule the courts and that London, and not an academy, would be its principal nursery. The appeals were allowed from that date to the Reformation. The flashback commenced with Henry and Becket as very close friends, Becket, a servant and personal advisor to Henry. He believed that Church courts did not set a good example as they were too soft on offenders. It then shifts to his earlier memories, leading up to his present.
This appointment was made to replace , the previous archbishop, who had died in 1161. Poole, From to 2d ed. Becket and his scholarly subjects prevailed, and Henry's first attempt at ending canon law failed. The next day he was ordained a Bishop, and that afternoon, June 2, 1162, made Archbishop of Canterbury. Over the next year, both sides maneuvered to gain advantages, working on diplomatic efforts to secure allies.
I agree with a comment that Burton was shafted the oscar for his performance of Becket. . Once at the council, Becket was found guilty of ignoring the court summons and under pressure from the bishops, accepted the sentence of confiscation of all non-landed property pending the pleasure of the king. Surrounded by a strong force of knights, he attacked whole regions. Henry's only request was to be provided with a list of those who had rebelled against him. For example, a royal court would blind or cut off the hand of a thief; a Church court might send a thief on a pilgrimage. Stocky, of medium height, he was robust in his prime but was becoming fat in his later years, not through over-indulgence, because he was moderate in his eating and drinking.
He was must successful at foiling these potential tragedies because of his well trained and loyal military wikipedia. Grievously sick, the ailing lion retreated to Chinon to lick his wounds. The king and Becket soon became close friends. The king's officials claimed that over a hundred murderers had escaped their proper punishment because they had claimed their right to be tried in church courts. In practice, the number of clerics was huge, including several levels of lay priests and clerks. This was effectively a dismissal of Becket from royal favour.