And if any person or persons, provincials or citizens, shall appeal to the people, it belongs to the prerogative to judg and determin the case; provided that if the appeal be from any court of justice in this nation or the provinces, the appellant shall first deposit a hundred pounds in the court from which he appeals, to be forfeited to the same, if he be cast in his suit by the people. He was succeded by Toland1771: 72. But the fame of Mahomet and his prudence, is especially founded in this, that wheras the Roman monarchy, except that of Israel, was the most imperfect, the Turkish is the most perfect that ever was. Now if we see even in those natural agents that want sense, that as in themselves they have a law which directs them in the means whereby they tend to their own perfection, so likewise that another law there is, which touches them as they are sociable parts united into one body, a law which binds them each to serve to others good, and all to prefer the good of the whole, before whatsoever their own particular; as when stones, or heavy things forsake their ordinary wont or center, and fly upwards, as if they heard themselves commanded to let go the good they privately wish, and to relieve the present distress of nature in common. And there can never be a commonwealth otherwise than by the order in debate wrought up to that perfection; but this necessity must somtimes happen in regard of her natural slowness and openness, and the suddenness of assaults that may be made upon her, as also the secresy which in som cases may be of absolute necessity to her affairs.
The bowl which is thrown from your hand, if there be no rub, no impediment, shall never cease: for which cause the glorious luminarys that are the bowls of God, were once thrown for ever; and next these, those of Venice. If they be cast out by the negative, the case being of advice only, the house approves not, and there is an end of it: the case being necessary, and admitting delay, the council is to think again upon the business, and to bring in new opinions; but the case being necessary, and not admitting delay, the senat immediately electing the juncta, shall create the dictator. Oceana Part of on of. The institution of the commonwealth was such as needed those props and scaffolds which may have troubled the reader; but I shall here take them away, and com to the constitution which stands by it self, and yields a clearer prospect. To God in the fabric of the commonwealth of Israel: and to the world in the universal series of antient prudence. Alternative Title: James Harington James Harrington, Harrington also spelled Harington, born Jan.
This edition also contains a chronology of events in Harrington's life and a guide to further reading. For what is becom of the princes a kind of people in Germany? This man spent five years in slight incursions, and Toland1771: 57. These bowls or basons better represented at the lower end of the figure by h. He proves that this equality is yet more wanting in monarchys, for an absolute monarchy as that of the Turk, for example the Janizarys have frequent interest, and perpetual power to raise sedition to the ruin of the emperor, and, when they please, of the empire: this cannot be said of the armys of Oceana, and therfore an absolute monarchy is no perfect government. Wherfore your parlaments are not henceforth to com out of the bag of Æolus, but by your galaxys, to be the perpetual food of the fire of Vesta.
Absolute monarchy, as that of the Turks, neither plants its people at home nor abroad, otherwise than as tenants for life or at will; wherfore its national and provincial government is all one. Seven Models of a Commonwealth, or brief Directions shewing how a fit and perfect Model of popular Government may be made, found, or understood. Now government is no other than the soul of a nation or city: wherfore that which was reason in the debate of a commonwealth being brought forth by the result, must be virtue; and forasmuch as the soul of a city or nation is the soverain power, her virtue must be law. Now for our imitation in this part, there is nothing in experience like that of the council of ten in Venice; the benefit wherof would be too long to be shewn in the whole piece, and therfore I shall take but a pattern out of Janotti. But, that the dissolution of the late monarchy was as natural as the death of a man, has bin already shewn. Now what better ends you can propose to your selves in the like ways, I do not so well see as I perceive that there may be worse: for Lacedemon yet was free from civil war: but if you employ your citizens no better than she did, I cannot promise you that you shall fare so well, because they are still desirous of war that hope it may be profitable to them; and the strongest security you can give of peace, is to make it gainful. When a further attempt was made to forcibly transfer the King to the capital, Harrington successfully intervened.
Then they were to divide and subdivide themselves into several councils and committees, for the better carrying on their business by themselves or their agents and accomplices all over the kingdom. But they of all the rest are the most dangerous, who, holding that the saints must govern, go about to reduce the commonwealth to a party, as well for the reasons already shewn, as that their pretences are against Scripture, where the saints are commanded to submit to the higher powers, and to be subject to the ordinance of man. Harrington provides a vision of a liberal, democratic, and constitutional society created at a time when England was in the throws of a revolution which had overturned a rigid and repressive monarchy. His successor was his kinsman Metellan: after Toland1771: 18. By order of England's then , it was seized when passing through the press. But as the council dividing consists of the wisdom of the commonwealth, so the assembly or council chusing should consist of the interest of the commonwealth: as the wisdom of the commonwealth is in the aristocracy, so the interest of the commonwealth is in the whole body of the people.
Nor, tho the kings often fell, was the throne of Oceana known to shake, until the statute of alienations broke the pillars, by giving way to the nobility to sell their estates. And if they pretend this law as to the preservation and impunity of their persons, the same answer will serve again, with this addition, That they make an offender incapable of punishment, which is but to give them a commission to offend. Where a conqueror finds the riches of a land in the hands of the few, the forfeitures are easy, and amount to vast advantage; but where the people have equal shares, the confiscation of many coms to little, and is not only dangerous, but fruitless. Wherfore this tho not always so intended as may appear by Machiavel, who else would be guilty is a pernicious error. Its strategies were not implemented at the time.
The second censor } of the tribe of Nubia, containing at this present muster 700 horse, and 1500 foot, in all 22000 deputys. And indeed it is a business so ticklish, that even Mr. Holland, through this defect at home, has borrowed princes for her generals and gentlemen for her commanders, of divers nations. If today's reader encounters difficulty ingesting Oceana, it is immediately understandable. According to Harrington, these mixed forms of government have existed, particularly in Rome.
The strategus and the orator having begun, all the rest do the like. Milcolumb, the third of that name, now being quietly seated, was the first that brought in those gay inventions and distinctions of honors, as dukes, marquesses that now are become so airy, that som carry them from places to which they have as little relation as to any iland in America, and others from cottages and dovecotes. It was first reprinted in in 1737 and 1758 in a super-edition as it were , containing a version of 's and an appendix of miscellaneous Harrington works compiled by the Rev. And for experience, if it be otherwise in that of Holland, I know no other example of the like kind. The like is don by the rest of the electors of the first order, till one competitor be chosen, and written to every magistracy in their list. Now, my lord, consider if this be a practice, what kind of persons you are that are thus far made instrumental in the hands of wicked men. The transition of antient into modern prudence.