The head of the static division found his power diminished considerably, as reflected in how seriously his subordinates took his efforts at influence e. In fact human organisation behaviors is what gives us food for thought for various researches and evolution of theories. As power and politics ebb and flow through these domains, keep in mind that power may come in two forms: formal or informal. If the chief executive senses envy in back of the thoughts, he may become frightened and choke off ideas which can be used quite constructively. Being supportive, loyal and team-oriented are qualities that Robert Half says employees will mirror back to you, underscoring the best lessons of organizational politics in action. Analyzing the use of power and politics are essential to understanding the behavior of individuals within organizations. This is the result of unhappy employees who are less likely to feel a sense of loyalty to their organisation and are more likely to hand in their letter of resignation.
Managing Organizational Politics Though it is virtually impossible to eliminate political behavior in organizations, it is possible to reduce it, if a manager understands the reasons for it and the techniques of political behavior. The demand, on the one hand, is for objectivity in assessing people and needs as opposed to pseudorationality and rationalizing. Managers placing themselves in the positions of other persons involved in critical decisions or events. Retrieved October 27, 2006, from www. This is also the case of formal authority and power. In countries where the institution of the army is a powerful one being 2nd power center, army chiefs areas powerful as the President or Prime Minister and have taken over the reins of the country staging a coup. Identification with Higher Authority — gaining special privileges by becoming identified with a powerful figure in the organization.
A sense of disbelief occurs when managers purport to make decisions in rationalistic terms while most observers and participants know that personalities and politics play a significant if not an overriding role. The fact that Knudsen subsequently was discharged from the presidency of Ford an event I shall discuss later in this article suggests that personalities and the politics of corporations are less aberrations and more conditions of life in large organizations. Competing interests can be reconciled by any number of means. The more the power base of an executive is his demonstrated competence, the greater his autonomy of power and therefore capacity to determine the outcome in the allocations of power. What one person might think is within the rules, another might think it's outside the rules. Leadership Leadership in monarchies is inherited and thus acquired but, in democracies, people who have leadership attributes rise in stature and contest elections, to become the leader of a country.
The fact that coalitions embody defensive maneuvers on those occasions where stress goes beyond the usual level of tolerance is not surprising. This involves particular people with their strengths and weaknesses and a specific historical context in which actions are understood in symbolic as well as rational terms. Although politics has a winner, this game never ends, the rules are always subject to change, and there is no referee or spokesperson. However, power and politics can be positive tools that managers use to accomplish tasks. This is the authority that a leader in an organization has over his employees; employees bow to his commands and follow his instructions out of fear.
The only difference between party and organizational politics is in the subtlety of the voting procedure. For example, a person who holds expert power can be promoted to senior management, thereby giving him legitimate power. Unlike power, politics do not have to be played by everyone within an organization. In such cases, which include developing a new formal organization structure, management succession, promotions, corporate mergers, and entry of new executives, the conflicts of interest are severe and direct simply because there are no objective measures of right or wrong courses of action. Finally, politics simply increases stress in the workplace. At worst, the sharp, jagged edges can wreak havoc in an organization.
He had managed to retain his job because he made himself indispensable in the management of the factory. If a manager can hire, fire, reward, or in any other way control someone's financial well-being or freedom, the manger can use power against the employee. The objective now is to examine from a political framework the problems of organizational life. In addition, they also find that it is better to hitch their fortunes to a particular faction so that they play the power game. It is used to achieve changes that can benefit the organization and those within it as well. Organizational Power and Politics Some employees believe that politics and power in the workplace is a game that corporate and management plays. At the same time, the amount of politics being played may determine how much power an individual may obtain within that organization.
When people lose power, they try to regain it individually, or by forming a coalition with other less powerful people. The contrary notion that executives are primarily caretakers, mediators, and seekers of consensus is more a myth than an accurate portrayal of how the competent ones attach themselves to power. However, if the employee loses, he or she may be pounding the payment and looking for a new job. Decentralization can be viewed in the image of conversion to certain ideals about who should have power and how this power should be used responsibly, or through an analytical approach to decide selectively where power is ill-placed and ill-used and to work on change at these locations. Any rational man will fight how constructively depends on the absence of neurotic conflicts and on ego strength. In between is the choice of defining those partial problems which can be solved and through which bright people can learn something about the intelligent uses of power. Power Plays — aggressive tactic involving grabbing of power from others.
What these leaders do not readily understand is the fallacy of imposing a total solution for the problem of power relations where reality dictates at best the possibility of only partial and transient solutions. Politics may be legitimate within sanctioned organizational limits or illegitimate exceeding sanctioned organizational limits in nature. Uncertainty in the form of ambiguous goals and changes that affect the organization tends to increase the use of political activity. That means towing a delicate line between exerting the kind of pressure that inspires critical, creative thinking and creating a workplace that allows people to feel relaxed and confident in their abilities. Here is a list of the fundamental differences between power and influence: 1. In expanding from this base, Harper made acquisitions, started new companies, and widened his orbit into international branches and companies.