Dutch culture and influence were prominent in New York and New Jersey. Under the Covenant, children and grandchildren of the elect could be baptized as infants; however they could not join the church or receive Holy Communion until they were able to testify to a visible manifestation of the gift of grace. Land: Originally, land had been parceled out under the headright system; one received 50 acres for each paid passage. The true reason for the events in Salem Village will probably never be known. Statutes forbade throwing garbage into streets. The Pinckney family of Charleston read from works of the great authors of the day, and sent their sons to study in England or France.
· Presbyterians set up College of New Jersey Princeton · Kings College in New York Columbia University · Anglicans set up College of Rhode Island Brown · Baptists, Queens College Rutgers The University of Pennsylvania was the only College founded for secular learning, however there is some argument that George Whitefield was instrumental in its founding. Gurney danced, but was modest and said nothing. Effects of the Great Awakening on American Society: The Great Awakening led to the disintegration of New England Puritanism. The German speaking area of Europe had been beset by religious wars since the Reformation. He reduced God to simply a creator.
· Middle class followed, mostly comprised of shopkeepers and artisans as well as carpenters, coopers, etc. Hard money was always short — any gold and silver on hand was used to pay for imported manufactured goods and shipping charges. The hall often contained household items such as a spinning wheel, cupboard, butter churn, etc, even a handloom for making cloth. This undercut traditional Calvinism, which had held that the gap between the Deity and his creatures was quite large. Two thirds of the populace were employed in this manner. Commerce was their primary objective, and there was little or no commerce between the colonies. Such a sermon, however, was not necessarily correct or divinely inspired.
Land settlement policy was similar to the headright system of the South. There were more educated people in New England than elsewhere in the Colonies, many of whom were college graduates. Servants were normally freed at end of their Indenture; normally 4 — 7 years, if they could survive it. At that point, they had the some rights as others who paid passage under the headright system; normally an allotment of land, clothes, tools, etc. Education in the Colonies: Early on there was concern that the children of settlers have some rudimentary education, less they grow up completely untutored. His sermons were an abandonment of the idea of predestined election; rather he preached that justification came from faith in Christ, and all persons could be saved; but all persons would burn in hell if they were not saved. Lumber also was a big export.
As a result, plantations grew larger, and the smaller farmers reduced to subsistence farming. There were also laws regulating carriage traffic, police forces for crimes, fire codes and fire departments, etc. All the major cities were located on the ocean front or, as in the case of Philadelphia on a riverfront to facilitate commerce. They hunted fur bearing animals to trade the furs for European manufactured goods without regard to depletion of the animal population. The Hudson, Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers gave Middle colonies access to back country fur trade and interior.
By 1704, 75,000 people lived there. This affirmation of human ability and reason had an extremely corrosive effect on Puritan thinking, which held that one's destiny was solely in God's hands. Manufactured goods, machinery, navigation instruments, etc. Hamilton argued that the law of England dealing with libel should be the law of the colonies; namely that truth was a defense to the charge that is, if the alleged libel were true, there was no libel but the Judge denied his motion. The Middle colonies were traditional in a similar vein to New England, with the exception of the Quakers. He often impersonated the agonies of a person suffering in hell, and the joys of the saved in heaven. The issue was temporarily resolved in 1751 when Parliament outlawed paper money as legal tender in the colonies.
. Daniel Defoe, the Author of Robinson Crusoe wrote another novel entitled Moll Flanders about the mishaps of a young lady who traveled to America as an Indentured servant. In 1733, several New Yorkers including John Peter Zenger, a German immigrant, founded the New York Weekly Journal, the first newspaper in the colonies which was to be politically independent. It was then a parlor, or dining hall. As a result, families were often broken up when parents died at an early age; This led to children being on their own early, and also close extended families and extended family support, still common in South. Their strong belief in original sin meant that humans were depraved by nature, government was necessary to restrain them. The depleted fields were planted in corn or beans, or allowed to remain fallow.
At age 24 he owned his own print shop, from which he published the Pennsylvania Gazette. Such misconduct was not uncommon, as there were more men in New England than women; thus men often succumbed to the temptation to satisfy their sexual urges outside the bounds of matrimony. Education appeared to be a larger concern in New England, because of the Puritan emphasis on reading of Scripture. In a letter to Lord Seyle on the subject of Democracy, the Rev. Her day ended about nine at night. This soon became a recurrent factor in American history: Inflation of the currency.
Adams mentions a particularly potent potable known as a flip Phlip. · Alternatively, provisions to West Indies were traded for sugar and molasses; shipped this to England traded them for manufactured goods. Their enterprise provided sustenance for a sub-industry of sail makers, shipbuilders, and others supplying ocean-going vessels. This was the famous Triangular Trade: · New England shipped rum to Africa for slaves; carried the slaves via the Middle Passage to the West Indies; traded slaves for molasses; made rum from the molasses, which was shipped to England. He was called to a church in Northampton, to succeed his grandfather. The Middle colonies were the widest range of religions due to how many different owners they were under before the Britain, including the Dutch, Swedish, and the French.