The Jharkhand Party continued as the largest opposition party in the Bihar legislative assembly. The Santhals formed their own armies composed of peasants marching against their oppressors. And there inaccessibility to the court was a major point of advantage for the leeches called moneylenders and extortionists who crawled around for prey in this part of the country. With the exception of the Mughal emperor and his sons and , the adopted son of the deposed peshwa, none of the important Indian princes joined the mutineers. The Santhals can be praised with great honor for building such an organized and disciplined army without any previous military training. The social cleavage between the Christian and non-Christian Mundas deepened due to which the solidarity of the tribals got diluted.
The Jharkhand region has much economic importance as it contributes to 75 per cent of the revenue of Bihar. Tribal uprising under Birsa Munda and so on. The leading Santhals began to rob the wealth of the moneylenders and the zamindars, which was ill-earned by exploiting the Santhals. The Santhals were obliged to pay all kinds of taxes and levies. There were major cultural changes in the year 1845 due to the advent of Christian missions, which had a major role to play in the Jharkhand movement.
For the railroad construction, the Europeans employed the Santhals for which they paid nothing to them. Such was the problem that Santhal tribal groups faced with the traders and East India company, who considered them as their enemies. It all began with the creation of Damin-i-Koh the area surrounding the Rajmahal Hills. People from different castes, creeds and communities actively participated in these movements. Siddhu Khanhu, Chand and Bhareo, four sons of chulu santhal of bhagna Dihi village of Raj Mahal district provided them the leadership. We observe most of the tribal movements had agrarian, religious, political, and economic causes for their emergence. The revolt was brutally crushed, the two celebrated leaders Sidhu and Kanhu were killed.
The pretext for revolt was the introduction of the new. The government declared the Santhal concentration area as the Santhal Pargana. They are organised and have a vibrating enthusiasm. They further sold the products at higher prices, making huge amount of profits. A massive uprising by the Advices was suppressed by the British through deployment of troops across the region. The East India Company with the intention to earn revenue from this unused, unpopulated land invited the Santhals to occupy it. In 1899, on Christmas eve,the Mundas attacked the churches, which covered an area of six police stations in the districts of Singhbhum and Ranchi.
The two groups of tribals who were the main agitators of the movement were the Chotanagpurs and the Santhals. In 1971, the nationalization of mines resulted in violence, 50,000 miners of Jharkhand were fired and replaced by outsiders. We may give example of silk, as to how santhal tribes were paid meagerly while the traders prospered. If this be the case and we hear nothing of the poisoned arrows in the recent conflicts, they are infinitely more respectable than our civilised enemy, the Russians, who would most likely consider such forbearance as foolish, and declare that is not war. According to some observers, very little of the water and electricity produced were supplied to the region.
Firstly the distance was great; secondly was the inaccessibility of a Santhal to the court in case he had to solve any issue. Santhal Rebellion: The rebellion of 1855-1857 was a great event in history of Santhal. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. They were abused and dispossessed of their own property. Santhal revolt was against the oppressive British policies. The peasants suffered due to high revenue demands and the strict revenue collection policy.
When their drum ceased, they would move off a quarter of a mile; then their drums beat again, and they calmly stood till we came up and poured a few volleys into them. But the officials took the Santhals in a very non-serious way. The forest region applies to the forested mountainous plateau region in eastern India, west of Gangas delta in Bangladesh, and south of Indo-Gangetic plain. Besides, they had other grievances. Soon after the declaration the Santhals took to arms. After returning from jail, Birsa became a more furious agitator. The council has autonomy and control over the departments which are specified in the Memorandum of Understanding, however, it does not control the whole of district administration.
This movement was popularly known as Mulkai ladai or Sardari ladai. Redressed of the grievances through the machinery of law being of no avail the Santhals themselves took up arms against the oppressors. In 1968, a study team of the parliament visited Ranchi and investigated the removal of certain groups from the official list of scheduled tribes. Differences developed among the Protestant churches and the Roman Catholic Church. The large army, which exceeded about 10,000 assembled and disassembled at a short notice. Likewise, moneylenders offered loans to tribals to meet their requirement for cash to produce goods , but they charged high rate interest from them.