The market price of theasset is ignored. The cash basis of accounting matches revenue with expenses as they are paid. What is the difference between Accounting Concepts and Conventions? Some of the important concept are given as follows: 1. The annual financial statements are considered to be interrelated series of statements. One of the most important conventions is the matching convention. The other conventions you will encounter in a set of accounts can be summarised as follows: Monetary measurement Accountants do not account for items unless they can be quantified in monetary terms. Indeed, these form a basis for formulating the accounting principles, methods and procedures, to record and present the financial transactions of business.
Income profit earned by the business during a period can be measured only when the revenue earned during the period is compared with the expenditure incurred to earn that revenue. For future events, profits are not anticipated, but provisions for losses are provided as a policy of conservatism. It may sound to be absurd that one sell goods to himself, but all transactions are recorded in the books of the business as per this point of view. Otherwise every time the annual financial statements are prepared the probable losses on account of the possible sale of assets should be accounted. However, it may take more time to gather reliable information. But it is expected that the company follows a particular method of depreciation consistently. This requires transactions to be recorded at the price ruling at the time, and for assets to be valued at their original cost.
They are judged on the General Acceptability rather than Universal Acceptability to the user of financial statement hence they are called as General Accepted Accounting Principles G. Periodicity concept assumes a small but workable fraction of time period for measuring the business performance. These conventions are derived by usage and practice. These principles show up all over the place in the study of accounting. Prudence Profits are not recognised until a sale has been completed.
Dual Aspect Concept: This is the basic concept of accounting. The two aspects are expressed as 'debit' and 'credit '. Revenue is recognized only when sale is effected or the services are rendered. Although shorter periods are frequently adopted for purposes of comparative studies, the normal accounting period is twelve months. Accounting concepts are the base for formulation of. In case where application of one accounting concept or principle leads to a conflict with another accounting concept or principle, accountants must consider what is best for the users of the financial information.
For example, a company that makes a sale to a customer can recognise that sale when the transaction is legal - at the point of contract. The convention breaks time into periods such as weeks, months, quarters, and years. But under accrual method, the revenues and expenses relating to that particular accounting period only are considered. In order that the messages communicated through the accounting language is understood by the users, there should be certain common principles. However, an item may be material for one purpose but immaterial for another, material for one concern but immaterial for another, or material for one year but immaterial for next year. Accounting Principles Accounting is often called the language of business through which a business house communicates with the outside world.
Therefore, as per this concept adjustments are made for all outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued incomes, unearned incomes etc. Accounting Concepts and Conventions 1 A business firm is separate and distinct from its owners is the assumption under which of the following accounting concepts: 1 Business Entity 2 Going Concern Entity 3 Money Measuring Entity 4 Accounting Period concept 5 None of the above 2 Assumption of accounting entity or business entity concept is applicable for which of the following business organizations. If every accountant starts following his own norms and notions for accounting of different items then there will be an utter confusion. The cost concept does not mean that the asset will always be shown at cost. The dual aspect of transaction may result in change in the assets and equities of the organization and make them equal.
If this is not done accounts will be overburdened with minute details. Information is more relevant if it is disclosed timely. This helps accountants to make entries that impact multiple time periods. This is done to follow which of the following accounting principles: 1 Dual Aspect Principle 2 Materiality Principle 3 Timeliness Principle 4 Consistency Principle 5 Conservatism Principle 14 Rules of revenue recognition determine that earning process should be either complete or near completion under: 1 Realization Concept 2 Materiality Concept 3 Historical Record Concept 4 Accounting Period Concept 5 Dual Aspect Concept 15 The business transactions are recorded date wise to create proper record for all transactions. Cost Concept Objectivity Concept : As per cost concept: an asset is ordinarily recorded at the price paid to acquire it i.
These are the concepts which are adopted by the organizations in preparation of financial statements to achieve uniformity in reporting. Key Characteristics of Accounting Information There is general agreement that, before it can be regarded as useful in satisfying the needs of various user groups, accounting information should satisfy the following criteria: Understandability This implies the expression, with clarity, of accounting information in such a way that it will be understandable to users - who are generally assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities Relevance This implies that, to be useful, accounting information must assist a user to form, confirm or maybe revise a view - usually in the context of making a decision e. Consistency also states that if a change becomes necessary, the change and its effects on profit or loss and on the financial position of the company should be clearly mentioned. Going concern Entit y 5 A firm is expected not to curtail its present scale and continue to operate at least at the existing level under, which of the following: Going Concern Entit y 6 It is assumed that only those transactions that could be expressed in monetary terms, under which of the following concepts: Money Measurement Entit y 7 Entire life of a business entity is divided into shorter time intervals, say of one year, under which of the following Accounting Principl e 8 General rules that are used as a guide in accounting and as a basis of accounting practices are called Generally Accepted Accounting Practice s 9 Every transactions has two aspects i. The purpose of these provisions is to disclose all essential information so that the view of financial statements should be true and fair. Rules of that should be followed in of all and statements.
These principles are the ground rules, which define the parameters and constraints within which accounting reports are generated. In this article you can find complete details for Accounting concepts — A comprehensive discussion like — Brief introduction for accounting concept, Meaning of Accounting concept, Details for Entity concept, Periodicity Concept, Money measurement concept, Accrual concept, Matching concept, Going concern concept, Cost concept, Realisation concept, Dual Aspect concept, Conservatism concept, Consistency concept, Materiality concept etc. But by usage they have attained the status of accounting principles. He has given the following list of postulates and principles. Also there should be consistency over a period of time in the preparation of these financial statements. On the basis of this principle depreciation is charged on fixed assets on the basis of expected life rather than its market value and intangible assets are amortized over a period of time. Making profit is the most important objective that keeps the proprietor engaged in business activities.
They arise from customs and practical application. The following conventions are generally regarded as the most important conventions in this group. The expenses related to revenue should be recognized in the same period in which the revenue was recognized. This conventions is specially significant in case of big business like Joint Stock Company where there is divorce between the owners and the managers. Every company that fall under this category has to follow this practice.