According to Kretch and Crutchfield, prejudice refers to some attitude or belief that serves to place the objects of the attitudes and beliefs at an advantage or disadvantage. White prejudice or Anti-semitic prejudice cannot be used in the Indian context. He very quickly proves himself notinterested in the people around him. The first prejudices in human history perhaps resulted from a fear of strangers or feelings of superiority over others. Unfortunately, throughout history our society has become victim to the upbringing and menacing of prejudices within. Further, psychological insight of parents should be increased for psychological therapy.
In these situations prejudice results from expectations that others could cause some kind of physical or financial harm. Because of the ambiguity of the subject or issue, people perceive them as they are asked to perceive. Among different prejudices, social prejudices like caste, sex and class prejudices are of tremendous importance as social life, inter personal relationship and adjustment of the individual in social situations are determined by them. Also prejudice could be caused by the understanding or misunderstanding of the something. The particular culture in which individuals grow up and mature plays a significant role in determining the values assigned to the various groups. An example would be a person, group, or company favoring one person over another on some arbitrary basis, such as gender or social class groups of people sharing similar wealth and social standing , rather than on individual merit. Since prejudice is related to authoritarian personality as suggested by some, change in child rearing practices may also reduce prejudice.
Stereotypes are over simplification of facts which are used to add meaning to certain facts out of a complex social environment. If ignorance causes fear and fear causes prejudice, then it may be assumed that increased knowledge or information, such as meeting the feared group, would lead to less fear and, as a result, less prejudice. Discrimination is the unfair treatment of people simply because they are different from the dominant group in society. It's a lot simpler than that. Despite this, participants consistently rated the men as being a few inches taller than the women.
Usually the group is distinguished from other groups by their cultural differences or some physical characteristics such as skin color. One group eventually gains economic dominance over other groups aided by prejudicial attitudes established toward those other groups. Feelings of frustration caused by a mood are often considered a cause of aggression as well as a cause of prejudice. Given how much humans, as social animals, invest in and depend upon their groups, betrayal of one's group is seen as one of the worst things one can possibly do. In any type of propaganda against prejudice where historical and traditional forces are operating, understanding of interpersonal relationship and group need is of tremendous importance. Only significant difference was observed in the stereotypes of the two groups.
Belief Incongruence : Rokeach 1960 attempted to explain, prejudice on the basis of individual difference in the ways of organising belief and disbelief system. Dutta 1965 conducted a study to measure attitude of University students towards religion and found that females were more religious than males. For example, in a border war between two nations, the people of one nation will view members of the other nation as strongly possessing negative traits in order to go into combat and try to kill them. This idea of reducing prejudice is specially applicable in India, which contains heterogeneous groups. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is a novel that portrays individual characters which demonstrate a lack of balance in the way they perceive themselves and as a result they create ruin. Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them.
Contact is effective to the maximum degree when there is equal status within a setting of people belonging to both groups. The spirited Elizabeth and softhearted Jane have to deal with not only their own feelings but also the status of their family, both of. As societies became more complex, due to an increase in population and in the ways to group people, such as through social classes and multiple ethnic groups, prejudices also became more complex. Parrillo divides his essay in two parts, one for the psychological causes and one for the social. Persons with high level of prejudice belief and disbelief systems are rigidly organised whereas in other individuals the systems are relatively flexible.
However, several studies show Catholics to be more prejudiced against negroes, protestants next most prejudiced, jews and people with less religious affiliation are least prejudiced. They may actually share more similarities than differences with the dominant group. High caste Hindu and Muslim do not differ significantly in any category of prejudice. While all humans belong to the same species, races are distinguished. Be specific and go into detail.
That is, to form an opinion before knowing the facts. Despite this close tie between the two, prejudice and discrimination are somewhat independent of each other. Secondly, it does not explain why in the same society people have got different kinds of attitudes and beliefs. Discrimination can take many forms. List and give details of five types of prejudices. Tajfal and Turner 1979 support the above facts.
But, since, all frustrations do not lead to aggression and there are other reactions to frustration besides aggression, it is not possible to say that all people who are prejudiced suffer from frustration. In this way, economic competition causes prejudice and discrimination. He eventually grows up to harbor much anger in adulthood. Accumulated tensions arising out of frustration of various basic and particularly significant needs often find expression in aggressive acts. This way of thinking was believed, to have been passed down from the previous generations to us through preconceived thoughts.